The Faculty of Maritime Studies and Transport
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Marine Engineering

Hydraulics and pneumatics


Introduction to hydraulics:

- advantages, disadvantages, areas of application,

- theoretical basis / legality,

- hydraulic fluids and their properties, types and reasons for wear within the hydraulic components.

Internal leakage:

- circular gaps,

- metal seal,

- influence parameters, calculation,

- irregularity of the shape of the plate and cylinder of the hydraulic sliding elements,

- roughness,

- axial and radial forces within the hydraulic components.

Cleanliness of hydraulic fluids and filtration:

- the link between cleanliness and filtration with maintenance,

- stability criteria for hydraulic systems,

- types and sources of impurities,

- the reasons for the failure of the hydraulic systems,

- standards,

- methods of measurement.

Pumps with constant and variable displacement:

- differences between hydrostatic and hydrodynamic pumps,

- types and characteristics of hydrostatic pumps,

- controlled pumps and basic pump controls,

- symbols.

Hydraulic cylinders and seals:

- the types and design characteristics of hydraulic cylinders,

- symbols,

- hydraulic cylinder sustainability tests,

- types of seals,

- static and dynamic sealing,

- installation, materials,…

Directional control and check valves:

- division by function and design,

- control methods,

- types of overlap,

- symbols,

- method of installation,

- vertical chain,

- two-stage valves,

- hydraulic damping control of two-stage valves,

- hydrological valves.

Pressure and flow valves:

- pressure relief and pressure reducing valves,

- one- and two-stage valves,

- hydraulic damping control,

- different construction solutions,

- flow control arrangements,

- apertures and chokes,

- check valves,

- valves with pressure compensation,

- current dividers,

- symbols.

Continious -control valves:

- advantages of using continuous valves,

- control / regulation,

- types of overlaps,

- transient function,

- flow calculation,

- dieter oscilations,

- digital hydraulics,

- symbols,

- types of proportional valves,

- flow calculations,

- pressure balance,

- setting of PID parameters,

- types of servo valves.

Auxiliary hydraulic components:

- hydraulic tanks and their equipment,

- pipelines: hoses, mounting methods, pipe fittings,  pipework schemes, filters and filtration.

Introduction to pneumatics:

- basic concepts in a pneumatics,

- theoretical basis,

- efficiency,

- advantages and disadvantages.

 Pneumatics primary components and actuators:

- the type and operation principles of the compressors,

- regulation of compressed air,

- pneumatic cylinders: single and double acting, multi-stage, tandem, diaphragm, bellows, telescopic and impact,

- rotary pneumatic actuators,

- seals,

- end-postition damping.

Pneumatic valves:

- division by function,

- construction designs,

- valve control types, one- and two-stage,

- differences between seat and slide valves,

- the design of the directional control valves,

- the design of valves with seals,

- digital pneumatic valves.

Pneumatic shut-off, flow and pressure valves:

- design of check valves,

- check valves,

- controlled check and logic valves,

- sequential pressure valves,

- reducing valves,

- delay valves,

- Valves blocks, lath, islands and integrated valves.

Air treatment, vacuum technology, combination work equipment and other pneumatic components:

- air quality in accordance with ISO 8573-1,

- air drying,

- unit, filtration, oiling,

- the basics of vacuum technology,

- pressure vessels,

- pipe connections and joints,

- seals,

- pneumatic combination devices.

Pneumatics circuit:

- direct and indirect control,

- on / off delay,

- movement diagram,

- pressure dependent control,

- tactful chain,

- two-handed start-up,

- VDMA and cascade method.

Advanced pneumatic regulation, symbols, simulations and modern applications:

- control units,

- memory-programmable control,

- industrial computer,

- types of industrial communications for pneumatic control,

- 1D and 3D simulations of pneumatic circuits and components,

- pneumatics and bionics.


Goals and competencies

To provide student with knowledge on the application of fluid power in maritime, manufacturing Industries. To provide students with an understanding of the fluids and components utilized in modern industrial fluid power system.

Special features:

Implementation of the learning content among others include requirements in accordance with the provisions of the STCW Convention A-II / 1, A-II/2, A III/1, A III/2  and the recommendations of the »Master and Chief Mate (Model course 7.01)« and »Officer in charge of a navigational watch (Model course 7.03)«, "Chief engineer officer and second engineer officer (Model course 7:02)" and "Officer and charge of an engineering watch (model course 7:04)


1. To know the physical laws associated with hydraulics and pneumatics

2. To understand the influence of cleanliness and other parameters of liquid / air on the operation of the hydraulic / pneumatics

3. To learn basic mathematical models for the calculation of hydraulic and pneumatic systems

4. To know the most important hydraulic components

5. To know the most important pneumatic components

6. To learn about hydraulic and pneumatic symbols and how to draw schemes


1. Ability to select the right energy transfer: hydraulics / pneumatics according to circumstances.

2. Ability to analyze input parameters and find suitable hydraulic / pneumatic actuator concept.

3. Ability to use mathematical models for sizing appropriate hydraulic / pneumatic components.

4. Ability and understanding of teamwork in the process of developing hydraulic / pneumatic systems.

5. Ability to organize and manage maintenance on hydraulic systems.

Basic literature

  1. Pezdirnik J., Majdič F. Hidravlika in pnevmatika : zapiski za predavanja. Ljubljana: Fakulteta za strojništvo, 201 381 str., ilustr. [COBISS.SI-ID 12024603]
  2. D. Findeisen, S. Helduser, Ölhydraulik: Handbuch der hydraulischen Antriebe und Steuerungen, 6. Auflage, Springer Verlag, 2015
  3. Esposito, A.: Fluid Power with Applications, Prentice-Hall, 2000. - Izbrana poglavja.
  4. Pezdirnik J., Majdič F. Krmiljene črpalke in hidravlični motorji ter hidrostatični pogoni : seminarsko gradivo. Ljubljana: Fakulteta za strojništvo, 2006.  [COBISS.SI-ID 9562651]